The History of the Shiite in Medina - 17 / 12 / 2013 - 11:02 pm

Alwatan Newspaper published an article on December 4 2013 by Abdulrahman Al Wabili about a book released by Alintishar Alarabi house in Beirut 2012 titled “Alnakhaolh in Medina Social and Cultural Formation” by Hassan bin Marzouk Raja Alharima Alnkhali. The book reviewed the historical and geographical backgrounds of Al Alnakhaolh (Shiite citizens), the oldest residents of Medina.

Alnakhaolh suffered and still suffering from misrepresentation attacks, such as suspicion in their religion and intensions. Officials over centuries have not stood against those attacks to eliminate oppression among this group.

Despite being accused of dishonesty, Alnakhaolh maintain and develop palm cultivation, since the era of Aws and Khazraj which is considered the most important economic product in Medina. Accordingly they were called Alnakhaolh.

The book relied on historical documents and sources which are considered references in the Arab- Islamic history to know the origins of Alnakhaolah. They are those who remained in Medina of Aws and Khazraj Al Ansar, and have not emigrated for other Arab and Islamic countries. Their job was planting palm trees. They were joined by tribes and families who came to Medina from Najd, Hejaz and Yemen to work in palm cultivation. By the passage of time, they intermarried of each other, till historians have called them "Alnakhaolah Arab Hijazi tribe".

Shiism was the prevailing doctrine in Medina at the end of Ayyubid period and at the beginning of Mamluk era, but Al Mamluks and Ottomans brought Sunni residents from outside the Arabian Peninsula, to ensure loyalty to them, and they had displaced some of Medina Shiite residents until the remaining Shiites became minority. In 842 Mamluk Sultan Aldaher Jaqmaq, had issued a decree prevent entering and praying on Alnakhaolah public funerals in the Holy Mosque, except the nobles of them. Since that time, rulers of Medina have followed this decree.

The Ottomans were the first who add the title "Nakhli" after the name of each Shiite citizen in Medina, in official documents, as they imposed adding the title of "nomadic" after the name of every Arab tribal which represents racial discrimination in the Arab world. Therefore some surrounding tribal clans of Medina allied with Alnakhaolah to protect themselves and their entities.

When King Abdul-Aziz met Alnakhaolah elders, he said to the emirate’s agent at that time Abdul Aziz Bin Ibrahim Al Ibrahim “look at the outside of them, not inside their hearts and give them their rights, they are under my protection”. Then he addressed the delegation, saying “enter with people no one will search your hearts”.

• Book: Alnakhaolh in Medina Social and Cultural Formation
• Author: Hassan bin Marzouk Raja Alharima Alnkhali
• Publisher: Alintishar Alarabi house
• Publishing Year: 2012
• Pages: 278